Persepolis is another
stage (after living units/budapest) in studying post-socialist living,
this time in Bucharest. The concept is that Bucharest consists in superimposed
layers of architecture, with no serious urban planning, generated by different
political utopias and each period was somehow aggressive on the previous
one. We are documenting these conflictual patterns of architecture.
One of the most aggressive ways of constructing by destroying the city
was the socialist layer, and now, 20-40 years after, we see large areas
of blocks of flats slowly transforming themselves into debris. They lost
the ideology which created them but a lot of people still inhabit inside,
using socialist designed "machines a habiter".
Some nuances can be noticed in the way that serial blocks of flats are
considered now. We will mention two situations. One is the case of large
boulevards with inserts of modernist monoliths in the center of the city,
still very intense and traumatic, the original abstract design of the
modernist facades have slowly changed being destroyed by the interventions
of the inhabitants. The other is a large number of blocks around the lake
and park IOR where these constructions integrate in the romantic landscape
just like in a historical landscape painting and people there seem not
to be aggressed by large scale socialist utopia.
The interaction between the functionalist blocks of flats and their inhabitants can
be seen mainly on the facade where the balconies became shortly after
1990 an experimental ground for their owners and after a first adaptive
period when the balcony was used to store all kind of things or food it becomed for many a new room or office in neoliberal times...
Maybe related to this esthetical need, a new kind of architecture appeared
in the last years.
Hotel Persepolis is just an example of the local luxury. It is located
in Pipera, in a neighborhood of weird new architecture, part issued from
plans of respected architects but the general result is exotic and chaotic.
Seeing this hotel in a pure 'mesopotamiam' style with double headed horses
as statues in front is a weird experience. We have to mention, the whole
area is guarded because a lot of American, British, French personal from
embassies along with foreign and romanian investors are living there,
the simple fact of taking photos there ends by giving your name and coordinates
to special forces protecting the people in the frame of the global war
Another interesting layer in Bucharest is the new architecture, and there
is a location where a lot of buildings will be constructed this year acting
just like a testing ground for future developments of the city. One of
the construction sites is called "cascade" a project by DSBA
and the architect in charge is Dan Dinoiu. We started to record there
the stages of the construction three months ago and we try to take advantage
to see architecture at work...
Just like before the Second World War, architecture is generated now by
economic needs but unlike the previous socialist period, architects have
a different approach on utopia. Dan said one day something like a statement:
there is no architecture without utopia.
Maybe because of this we where so interested in recording the construction
of a new thing, another building added to the previous urban tissue.
"Persepolis explores post-socialist dwelling, starting from the realization
that "Bucharest contains superimposed patterns of constructed utopia".
If I may be forgiven the pedantic nuisance of a Greek etymology, persepolis
was one of Athena's attributes, meaning "she who destroys cities".
More or less overtly, the memory of ravage is always there in the photographs,
as are the residues of ideology and unrestrained political power. Read
diachronically, the images show the painful co-existence of three historical
strata: early modernism, the particular brand of modernism practiced during
communist times, and the contorted ways of new, post-revolutionary architecture.
The flotsam of early modernism is what the severe interventions of communist
urbanism left behind, as they sought to remap Bucharest by displacement
and disruption, producing grids and gridlocks and paralyzing the organic
growth of the city. Persepolis includes both the ceremonial and the social
type of communist architecture, the first designed to express absolute
power and a complete disregard to notions of utility and scale, and the
second to replicate endlessly the same precarious suburb, lending itself
reluctantly to dwelling and discouraging the establishment of communities.
In its turn, the socialist layer sustains today the onslaught of entrepreneurial
urban thinking, engulfing and building upon urban dysfunction, adaptable
and indifferent to context, channeling peripheral energies of opposition
and colonizing space indiscriminately. Old and new ruins are striving
to mute each other in cacophonic agglomeration: read synchronically, the
images introduce viewers to an architectural war front, a site of collisions
or tense juxtapositions between disjointed urban fragments, taking bricolage
to the level of state policy and defying the prospect of a restorative
I would not argue that Persepolis aims to chart this "city in progress",
the Bucharest of emergency and uncertain deadlines, although an interstitial
counter-geography, an emergent city mixed in and against the existing
one is sometimes noticeable. Instead of cartography, the project makes
reference to another visualization device: the panorama. This panorama
of Bucharest is "history made visible", in tandem with the definition
proposed by Roland Barthes - yet not in the sense of a linear, impersonal
flow of distant history, but "in the flesh" of buildings and
places, by reading architecture like a narrative fresco."
Text by Mihnea Mircan